Determination of pesticide residues in the apple in the Resen region

Jankuloska, Vezirka (2018) Determination of pesticide residues in the apple in the Resen region. PhD thesis, Goce Delcev University, Stip.

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Apples, being an integral part of human nutrition, are an important fruit cultivar which is a source of a great deal of vitamins, minerals and biologically active components. As well as being consumed as fresh fruit, apples are also used as a raw material which is processed in the production of a variety of products. In the Republic of Macedonia, apples represent the main fruit species and are mostly cultivated in the Resen region.
In Apple cultivation producers face various diseases and pests that cause damage to apples which necessitates the introduction of preventive measures that include the use of pesticides. As pesticide residues and their metabolites may be a potential hazard to human health, the primary concern is to determine their presence in order to avoid the potential risk to human health. It is of vital importance to follow guidelines and recommendations by authorized institutions for their maximum residue limit (MRL).
With the use of the most sophisticated separation techniques: ultra performance liquid chromatography with a triple quadruple mass spectrometry (UPLC-TQ/MS) and gas chromatography with a tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) after pre-extraction of residues using the QuEChERS method and in accordance with MKC EN 15662:2011 standard, an analysis of pesticide residues in apples was carried out.
In this research, two sorts of apples, Idared and Golden Delicious were analyzed from five different locations in the Resen region (Evla, Kriveni, Drmeni, Jankovec and Lavci). The two sorts of apples from Evla and Krveni were analyzed in four development stages of apples (hazelnut-sized apple, walnut-sized apple, apples at the beginning of ripening and postharvest apples).
The analysis of the apples showed that there is a difference in detected pesticides in two sorts of apples cultivated in two locations (Evla and Kriveni) which were analyzed in developmental stages, but there is also a difference in the concentration of pesticide residues in apples from different locations. In the observation of the concentration of pesticides detected in the apples, a decrease in their concentration is noticeable which indicates their degradation over time. This study proved that some of the apples analyzed are safe to eat, whereas some are not safe due to the fact that they contain residues of chlorpyrifos, carbendazim (azole), cymoxanil, omethoate and dimethoate with several times higher concentration than the maximum allowed.
In order to ensure that consumers are provided with safe food which does not contain residues of pesticides with a concentration above the maximum permissible, monitoring and control of products are necessary. Education of agricultural producers is needed to reduce the use of pesticides and increase the use of other protective measures such as integrated protection.
Key words: Idared, Golden delicious, fungicides, insecticides, UPLC-TQ/MS, GC-MS/MS, QuEChERS

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Subjects: Agricultural Sciences > Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries
Divisions: Faculty of Agriculture
Depositing User: Sladzana Mitrovska
Date Deposited: 31 Jul 2018 07:50
Last Modified: 31 Jul 2018 07:50

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