Etiology of peri-implantitis

Papakoca, Kiro and Petrovski, Mihajlo (2019) Etiology of peri-implantitis. Knowledge - International Journal, Scientific Papers. ISSN 2545-4439

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Peri-implantitis is an infection around the body or the apex of the implant followed by less or bigger
alveolar bone loss around the implant. This inflammatory process can lead to bone loss and if not treated could lead
to the complete loss of the implant-supported prosthodontic restoration. Clinically, the inflammatory process can be
presented as bleeding on probing, deepened periodontal pockets and periodontal suppuration. Taking into
consideration that peri-implantitis, as an inflammatory condition, can lead to implant loss and consecutively loss of the prosthetic suprastructure worn by the implants, we set out the main aim of this paper - to analyze the latest
available literature data concerning the etiology of peri- implantitis. Adequate literature research was performed to
fulfill the main goal. Sources of information used in this study are obtained from the most used of all scientific
databases- Pub Med. The keywords used for searching in this database were “peri-implantitis etiology”, “etiology of
peri-implantitis”, “peri-implant disease etiology” and “risk factors peri-implantitis”. All of the used literature was previously published in peer-reviewed publications and journals. Most of the articles were in English language,
published in the last fifteen years from 2004 until 2019. Understanding the etiological and risk factors leads to
successful prevention of this late-stage complication. Peri-implantitis can be defined as a poly-microbial anaerobic infection around the body or the apex of the implant. The etiology of peri-implantitis is associated with a complex bacterial dental biofilm and numerous risk factors. All these bacteria from the dental biofilm can establish harmful inflammatory immune response in host and inhibits bone cells reattachment to the implant surface. Microorganisms that are living on the dental implant surface are initial cause of peri-implantitis. Previous periodontal disease, poor oral hygiene, tobacco usage, genetic traits, diabetes, residual cements and occlusal overload are most common noted risk indicators. Other potential risk factors such as osteoporosis and local factors related to the surgical peri-implant
site might increase the severity of the peri-implant tissues destruction. In addition, several other factors exist, such as poor implant placement, poor oral hygiene, residual cement, poor implant surface, unfavorable osseous density, untreated periodontitis, drinking and smoking, untreated endodontic lesions, diabetes, etc and can cause peri-implant disease. Smoking is the greatest and most often cited risk factor for peri-implant disease followed by a history of periodontitis. Bone tissue factor associated with appearance of peri-implantitis are mineral bone density, microarchitecture and trabecular thickness. Also the distance between the contact point between two neighboring teeth and a line connecting the mid-facial soft tissue margin of these teeth can be categorized as important risk factor for peri-implanitis and mucositis. Surgical trauma has been regarded as one of the most commonly suspected etiologies proposed for peri-implantitis. Occlusal overload can result in progressive marginal bone loss or even complete loss of osseointegration, and when traumatic occlusion is combined with inflammation, the progression of bone destruction is accelerated. Mechanical debridement, disinfection with chemotherapeutic agents, smoothing implant surface and surgeries aimed to eliminate. Healthy periodontal environment is absolutely required after decontamination of implant surface to achieve desirable treatment outcomes. Based on the most up-to-date data from scientific and expert research investigations processed for the purpose of this paper, it can be observed that the following etiological and risk factors are of major importance in the development of peri-implantitis: presence of dental plaque; inadequate oral hygiene; smoking; adverse occlusal loading еct.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: Medical and Health Sciences > Basic medicine
Medical and Health Sciences > Health sciences
Medical and Health Sciences > Other medical sciences
Divisions: Faculty of Medical Science
Depositing User: Mihajlo Petrovski
Date Deposited: 11 Jun 2020 06:39
Last Modified: 11 Jun 2020 06:39

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