Electronegative low-density lipoproteins as a cause of secondary cardiovascular diseases in chronically ill patients – a method for identification and monitoring

Tusheva, Ivana and Milev, Mishko and Kamceva, Gordana and Maneva, Manuela and Ruskovska, Tatjana (2019) Electronegative low-density lipoproteins as a cause of secondary cardiovascular diseases in chronically ill patients – a method for identification and monitoring. Knowledge - International Journal, Scientific Papers, 30 (4). pp. 747-751. ISSN 2545-4439

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Cardiovascular diseases are common in patients who already have another chronic disease -- it could be diabetes, chronic pulmonary disease, kidney disease, etc. Patients who have diabetes are two to three times more prone to develop cardiovascular disease. The risk to develop cardiovascular disease is higher in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), compared to those that do not have COPD. High cardiovascular risk has also been demonstrated in patients diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis who have developed chronic kidney disease.
Chronic diseases lead to modification of biomolecules, including LDL (low-density lipoproteins). Therefore, in the circulation of patients with various chronic diseases are present oxidized LDL, carbamylated LDL, desialylated LDL, and glycated LDL. The main attribute of all these forms of modified LDL is their increased electronegativity, compared to non-modified LDL. In addition, the modified LDL forms are more atherogenic. Many studies have explored the involvement of electronegative LDL in atherogenesis. Electronegative LDL induce inflammatory response, and adhesion of monocytes and lymphocytes to endothelial cells, stimulating them to produce adhesive molecules and chemokines. Electronegative LDL has higher affinity to proteoglycans. This property promotes retention of electronegative LDL in the subendothelial layer. L5, the most electronegative LDL sub-fraction, at concentrations at which it circulates in the blood of chronically ill patients, causes cellular senescence, while at higher concentrations it causes apoptosis of endothelial cells. Cellular senescence may mediate endothelial dysfunction and atherogenesis.
To analyze the electronegativity of LDL we used the method of electrophoresis. First, it was necessary to isolate the LDL fraction from the serum. The isolation was successfully conducted applying three washes with heparin citrate buffer. We analyzed blood samples from a patient with diabetes, a patient with COPD, a patient with lupus erythematosus on hemodialysis, and a healthy person. In patients with different pathologies, the electrophoresis of LDL demonstrated a difference in electronegativity. The highest electronegativity was demonstrated in the patient with diabetes.
A therapy targeted to reduce the electronegative LDL would be highly beneficial to counteract the progression of cardiovascular diseases. LDL electrophoresis could be used as a method for identification of patients with electronegative LDL and monitoring of the effects of therapy.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: Medical and Health Sciences > Clinical medicine
Divisions: Faculty of Medical Science
Depositing User: Tatjana Ruskovska
Date Deposited: 06 May 2019 09:21
Last Modified: 06 May 2019 09:21
URI: https://eprints.ugd.edu.mk/id/eprint/21924

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