Cytogenetic damage in mine workers

Kaeva-Pejkovska, Mirjana and Dimeska, Gordana and Velickova, Nevenka (2010) Cytogenetic damage in mine workers. In: Southeast European medical forum (SEEMF), First international medical congress, 22-25 september, Golden Sands Resort, Bulgaria.

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Background: Interaction between chemicals and genetic material results principally in two types of dezoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) alterations: first, changes in single genes at the molecular level and, second, chromosomal aberrations derived from breakage in the near coherence of chromosomes. Too little is known about the chromosomal effects of metal exposure. The aim of this study was to detect cytogenetic damage in mine workers working in a lead–zinc mine, which could be associated with a combined exposure to lead, zinc and cadmium like heavy metals and to determine risk factors for the frequencies of structural chromosomal aberrations (SCA) in peripheral blood lymphocytes of mine workers. The present article attempts to synopsize current knowledge of the chromosomal effects caused by heavy metal exposure, point out the existing gaps in this knowledge and discuss future research needs.
Material and methods: Our study involved 120 mine workers from the lead–zinc mine in Macedonia, and control group (30 )- local people who had never worked in the mine. We used peripheral blood lymphocytes as the target material. The total share of structural chromosome aberration (SCA) are search out over the 3 years of monitoring, Also we measured the blood level of lead, zinc and cadmium with ISP-AES.
Results: We concluded increased blood lead level in exposed group (Mean= O,089) and in 20% in control group (Mean=0,066); increased zinc blood level in exposed (Mean=1,391) and in control group (Mean=1,074); increased cadmium blood level in 62% of exposed (Mean=0,007) and in 50% of control group (Mean=0,006); Chromosomal aberrations (like dicentric and acentric chromosome) were found to be elevated in 7% of exposed individuals (mine workers) non in the control group. Individuals with chromosomal aberrations work above 20 years in the mine, and they have positive correlation between blood levels of heavy metals (lead, cadmium and zinc) and chromosomal aberrations. Both chromosome type aberrations in the exposed group were accompanied with anemia, leucocitosis and anisocitosis.
Conclusions: We may conclude that a group of exposed persons showing increased levels of chromosome abnormalities has a higher risk of developing cancer than a group showing no increase in aberrations The earliest concern of the research work in the field of occupational diseases was intoxication with heavy metals. 85% of workers with long exposure were found to be suffering from various respiratory tract diseases like asthma and respiratory infections. Aur research showed that nearly all workers complained of headache. The results of in vivo and in vitro studies with the same test system, human lymphocytes, sometimes disagree. This inconsistency may be due to differences in concentrations at target sites on one hand, or to the capacity of the body to eliminate heavy metals (lead, zinc and cadmium).

Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item (Speech)
Subjects: Medical and Health Sciences > Basic medicine
Medical and Health Sciences > Health sciences
Divisions: Faculty of Medical Science
Depositing User: Nevenka Velickova
Date Deposited: 26 Nov 2012 13:38
Last Modified: 26 Nov 2012 13:38

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