Immunomodulatory effect of probiotics and their role in allergy

Stojanov, Spase and Smilkov, Katarina (2016) Immunomodulatory effect of probiotics and their role in allergy. In: First International Students’ Symposium of Faculty of Medical Sciences “Celebrating achievements in medicine, promoting health and sharing knowledge”, 20 Apr 2016, Stip, Macedonia.

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Probiotics as live microorganisms can confer health benefits to the host, when administered in adequate amounts. Prebiotics on the other hand, are substances that induce the growth or activity of (probiotic) microorganisms. Studies have shown that various effects of different probiotic strains can exert beneficial effects in humans. Most of the studies explore their gastrointestinal effects, but also the studies that present immune enhancement are in rise. Our goal was to explore the studies that relate to immunomodulatory effects of the probiotics, with an accent to allergies and allergic diseases in both, pediatric and adult patients. Allergic disorders are immune mediated and are characterized by increased IgE synthesis and activation of eosinophils, or can be non-IgE mediated (IgG, Th-cells, complement activation). Some studies show an effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus on humoral immunity in infants with atopic dermatitis. For example, one study indicates that the proportions of CD19+ and CD27+ B- cells significantly increased in the treated patients compared to the placebo group. In another study conducted in 3-12 months infants diagnosed with atopic dermatitis, Lactobacillus rhamnosus didn’t show any therapeutic effects. Again, a study shows that the peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) in asthmatic children treated with another probitoic, Lactobacillus gasseri, increased in the nighttime, but did not differ in the daytime. In addition, studies have been conducted to confirm their beneficial effects in adults. In a study with 31 adult volunteers with a history of grass pollen allergic rhinitis were treated with Lactobacillus paracasei. The outcome of the study showed that nasal pruritus was significantly lower after the treatment. However, in the treatment of pollen allergic rhinitis, L. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis didn’t show significant difference post- vs. pre-treatment. Studies have claimed that the main immunological effects of probiotics underlay in inhibiting the production of cytokines. Also, studies have shown that different strains of probiotics have their own unique mechanism of action. For example, some strains of Bifidobacterium induce the production of IL-10 and on the other side inhibit the production of IL-4. Nearly all strains inhibit the production of IgE in infants and also in adult patients, but induce the production of IgA.
It is of no doubt that probiotics play a role in the immune system. Still, up to now, studies have been inconsistent and more evidence has to be presented to solidify the hypothesis of the health benefits of probiotics, especially when we know that the effects can be modest and may depend on various conditions.

Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item (Speech)
Subjects: Natural sciences > Biological sciences
Medical and Health Sciences > Health biotechnology
Medical and Health Sciences > Health sciences
Divisions: Faculty of Medical Science
Depositing User: Katarina Smilkov
Date Deposited: 30 Jan 2017 08:24
Last Modified: 30 Jan 2017 08:24

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