Perspectives for applications of nanotechnology and nanomaterials in medicine

Taleski, Vaso and Zdravkovska, Milka and Simjanovska, Liljana (2016) Perspectives for applications of nanotechnology and nanomaterials in medicine. International Journal Knowledge, 15.1. pp. 323-326. ISSN 1857-92

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Nanotechnology is a new science that comprise several science fields (chemistry, biology, physics, material science and engineering) conducted devices or materials that have at least one dimension undersize of 100 nm. Nanomaterials are chemically or physically different to their macro-scale counterparts and may have unique health and environmental impacts. Nanoparticles can be synthesized by reactions in solid state (breaking the larger materials) and chemical methods (wet chemical synthesis).
Extremely small size enables nanoparticles to enter the human body through usual or unusual routes, pass through cell membranes, or cross the blood-brain barrier.
At present, potential use of nanotechnology in a range of applications at any stage in food industry: production, processing, packaging, labelling, transporting, tracing, keeping the quality of food product and extend the product shelf-life, leading to less food waste, water filtration, removal of undesirable tastes, flavors or allergens from food products.
Applications of nanotechnology and nanomaterials in medicine (Nanomedicine) based on Nano (bio) sensors enables rapid and sensitive detection of pathogenic bacteria and trace levels of viruses in small sample volumes, at lower costs. Early detection of pathogens enables accurate and prompt treatment.
Sensors to detect biofilm formation by bacteria on surfaces are developing.
Multi-drug resistant microorganisms (MDR) are one of the most serious and increasing global, public health threat. New strategies urgently needed to combat MDR, includes nanomaterials as very promising approach.
Metal nanomaterials (silver, gold, copper, titanium, zinc, magnesium, cadmium, and alumina) possess unique antimicrobial activities.
Researchers are developing:
- Method to release insulin from sponge-like matrix and Nano-capsules, when the glucose level rise
- Nano-particles to be taken orally (pills), could pass the intestines into the bloodstream
- Sensors to detect bacterial biofilms on surfaces
- Nano-particles to defeat viruses by delivering an enzyme that prevents their reproduction in the patients
- Gelatin nanoparticles can be used to deliver drugs to damaged brain tissue
- Nanoparticles to deliver vaccine, allowing the vaccine a stronger immune response
Risks of nanotechnology are still unknown and unpredictable.

Keywords: applications, nanomedicine, nanoparticles, nanotechnology

Item Type: Article
Subjects: Engineering and Technology > Nano-technology
Medical and Health Sciences > Other medical sciences
Divisions: Faculty of Medical Science
Depositing User: Vaso Taleski
Date Deposited: 27 Jan 2017 09:59
Last Modified: 27 Jan 2017 09:59

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