The Reforms in the Institutional Structure of the European Union in Compliance With the Lisbon Treaty

Stojanovska-Stefanova, Aneta and Atanasoski, Drasko and Temelkov, Zoran and Bardarova, Snezana and Filiposki, Oliver (2014) The Reforms in the Institutional Structure of the European Union in Compliance With the Lisbon Treaty. Journal of US-China Public Administration, 11 (8). pp. 642-649. ISSN 1548-6591

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Attempts to unify the various European peoples preceded the modern states. From the very beginning, the European integration was not an aim as such, but an expression of policy managed by interests. This can only be understood if we recall of the situation in Europe after the Second World War.
Historical particular situation, characterized by the decline of European countries and the negative attitude towards the Soviet Union, which occurred shortly after the Second World War.
For this condition there were foremost five motives that led Europeans to great experiment of integration:
 Desire for a new self-understanding: after nationalist delusions Europe had to offer the opportunity for new mutual experiences. Democratic inclined Europe as an alternative to rejected nationalist reign.
 Desire for security and peace: specifically the states were unable to prevent the World War II and there was hope that united Europe will be more successful in this respect and at the same time, will provide protection against the threat of communist expansion. Europe was supposed to be a community of peace.
 Desire for freedom and free movement for many years backwards people have suffered under military conditioned limitations in terms of passenger traffic, goods and capital. Therefore, it was quite understandable the desire for free movement of the people, opinions, information and goods.
 Hope for trade welfare: United Europe was supposed to introduce the people in a period of great economic stability and prosperity. The common market was supposed to strengthen the trade and enable an efficient economy.
 Expectations for common power: European countries, which before 1914 had been dominant for a long period of time on international plan, had dismembered during the two world wars. The new world powers, the USA and the USSR, had established measures of new international power, that far more exceeded the capabilities of the smaller European countries. Western European countries were hoping that by political uniting they will recover most of the power that had lost individually.
The European Union is the largest confederation of independent states in the world, established under that name in 1992 by the Treaty on European Union (Maastricht Treaty). However, many aspects of the Union existed before this year through a series of previous contracts, dating from 1951. The European Union was created as a supranational and intergovernmental union (community) of 27 democratic states-members.
EU activities cover all areas of public policy, from the health and economic policy to foreign policy and defense. However, the scope of its powers differs greatly depending on the given area. Depending on the area that is in question, the EU can represent:
• Federation (e.g., in monetary affairs, agricultural, trade and environmental policy);
• Confederation (e.g., in the social and economic policy, consumer protection, internal affairs);
• International organization (for example, in foreign affairs).
A key activity of the EU is the establishment and management of the common single market, consisting of a customs union, a single currency (which was adopted by 12 of the 27 Member States), common agricultural policy and the common fisheries policy.
The most important institutions of the EU are the: Council of the European Union, European Commission, European Parliament and European Court of Justice. The EU members transferred a significant sovereignty to the EU - more than any other non-sovereign regional organization.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: Social Sciences > Law
Social Sciences > Other social sciences
Social Sciences > Political Science
Divisions: Faculty of Tourism and Business Logistics
Depositing User: Aneta Stojanovska
Date Deposited: 20 Aug 2015 11:26
Last Modified: 20 Aug 2015 11:26

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