Marijuana once and today

Bauer, Biljana and Kostik, Vesna and Kavrakovski, Zoran (2015) Marijuana once and today. In: II Congress of Pharmacists of Montenegro with International participation, 28-31 May 2015, Becici, Montenegro.

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Marijuana is very popular nowadays because of its medical use. This paper gives a short survey and review on the historical development of the ideas associated with marijuana. The aim of this paper is to look inside all faces of marijuana through history. Marijuana represents the dried top parts of female hemp plant in flower, which contains up to 6% tetrahidrocanabinol THC. Throughout human history hemp has been used for many purposes such as recreation, therapy, art, religion, medicine as a textile. The origin of marijuana dates from six thousands years ago when many different tribes used it for different celebrations and rituals. There are documents that show that marijuana was used even in the time of Chinese Emperor Shen Nung in 2337 BC. They used it in their funeral rituals. Seeds of this plant were found in their funeral urns. This plant was also used for treating insomnia, healing and also as painkiller. Each culture and subculture from prehistory up to now use this plant because it causes selective changes in consciousness of its consumers strictly dosing what is beyond reality, and also for medical reasons. Medicinal use of marijuana arrived in Europe from the East during the 18th century. It was brought to Europe much later, but it was not less popular. It reaches the high society very soon. In Paris, a club was open where many famous people, even Balzac, enjoyed marijuana. The first comprehensive description of the medical use of Indian hemp in Europe was written in 1830 by the German pharmacist Friedrich Ludwig Nees von Esenbeck. Until that point in time, use of marijuana for medical purposes had remained at a low level. Thanks mainly to the work of W.B.O’Shaugnessy in 1839 marijuana become recognized within European – school medicine. He used various hemp compounds in his investigations, partly with great success, against rheumatism, rabies, cholera, tetanus, convulsions and delirium tremens. The prestigious US Institute of Medicine published its report Medical Use of Marijuana in 1999. Recent studies reviewed by Park et al. 2004 that marijuana, THC and other exogenous cannabinoids exert potent effects on the endocannabinoid system in both the gonads and during pregnancy. These reports established the evidence base to support the further examination of cannabis products for medical use. Today marijuana is forbidden in many countries for its narcotic and negative influence to the nerve system. In some cultures marijuana was a protected mark, other cultures were its big admirers and third do not know or do not look on that way about marijuana. The use of marijuana was legalized in the Netherlands in 2003 and extended for a five – year period in 2007.
Key words: marijuana, cannabis, pharmaceutical use, medicinal use, history

Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item (Poster)
Subjects: Medical and Health Sciences > Other medical sciences
Divisions: Faculty of Medical Science
Depositing User: Vesna Kostik
Date Deposited: 16 Jun 2015 11:28
Last Modified: 16 Jun 2015 11:28

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