Pistacio-A New Possibility

Zlatkovski, Vasko and Trajkova, Fidanka and Mitrev, Sasa (2012) Pistacio-A New Possibility. In: Environment and Ecology in the Mediterranean Region. Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 12 Back Chapman Street, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE6 2XX, UK, pp. 321-322. ISBN (10): 1-4438-3757-1, (13): 978-1-4438-3757-6

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Abstract

The effects of global warming are becoming more influential than ever. Vineyards in Eastern Macedonia that 20 years ago used to ripen in mid October now are ready to be harvested in late August-early September. Average winter temperatures are a bit higher than earlier and precipitation distribution has changed as well. Such change did put Macedonian farmers in process of reconfiguring their production habits. Many of them had begun a search for most suitable and adaptable crops for the “new” conditions, crops that will stand the changes and secure regular harvest. Fruit growing is a tradition in Macedonia. Unfortunately two decades ago a disease on pear destroyed every hectare under this crop, leaving Macedonian fruit production crippled. Pistachio characterizes with strong resistance to high temperatures (> 40°C; Colov, 1981) and is fruit specie with high demand for hot and dry summers. Kaska et al (1990) indicate that in South-East Anatolia there is sufficient number of days with high summer temperatures and that during that period of the year there are 98-110 days with average temperature above 30°C. In areas where average summer temperatures are below 22°C pistachio fruits cannot reach maturity, crack (opened nut) percentage is low and the mesocarp detaches harder from the endocarp. Different varieties have different level of susceptibility to low temperatures. Those one originating from Northern Iran, Caucasus and southern parts of Ukraine and Russia are characterized with high tolerance to low temperatures. Other authors (Colov, 1981; Duke, 1989), resistance to low temperatures of pistachio’s varieties originating from the Mediterranean basin equal to the one of the almond. But, since the almond blooms much earlier than the pistachio, late spring frosts cause no harm to pistachio whose blooming period is much later. Weather data from 1951-1991 (Filipovski et al) indicate that the most northern Macedonian city of Kumanovo has an average annual temperature of 11.8°C, followed by Skopje 12°C, Stip 12.8°C, Veles 13.3°C, Valandovo, Gevgelija and Dojran 14.2°C respectively. Minimum temperatures are of great importance too. The absolute minimum was recorded in Skopje -25.6°C and since the pistachio trees never suffered damages it is to be concluded that it could be successfully grown in the other Macedonian regions. Pistachio’s low input production cost indicates that growing pistachio in the Republic of Macedonia could become a major interest of Macedonian farmers.

Item Type: Book Section
Subjects: Agricultural Sciences > Agricultural biotechnology
Divisions: Faculty of Agriculture
Depositing User: Vasko Zlatkovski
Date Deposited: 04 Feb 2013 18:11
Last Modified: 15 Feb 2013 10:05
URI: http://eprints.ugd.edu.mk/id/eprint/5487

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