Nuclear and cytoplasmatic abnormalities as a tools for evaluating genomic instability

Velickova, Nevenka and Milev, Mishko (2019) Nuclear and cytoplasmatic abnormalities as a tools for evaluating genomic instability. In: The 42nd European Congress of Cytology, 16-19 June 2019, Malmö, Sweden.

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Abstract

Objectives: A variety of polutants (physical and chemical agents) as a cancerogens can cause the nuclear and cytoplasmatic abnormalities in the human cells. Lymphocytes, with nuclear or cytoplasmatic abnormalities, are easily detected and suitable cells as biomarkers in human biomonitoring. These types of abnormalities have been associated with mitotic and chromosomal instability. The occurrence of chromosomal damage can be evaluated by counting micronuclei and other nuclear and cytoplasmatic abnormalities are indicative of apoptosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate and confirm the nuclear and cytoplasmatic abnormalities in lymphocites as a biomarker of DNA miss repair complexes and DNA damage on medical workers exposed to ionizing radiation. Material and methods: Using the micronucleus (MN) assay as a test in genotoxicology we analyzed the lymphocyte with their abnormalities as a formation of micronucleus, nucleoplasmic bridges, nuclear buds, vacuolated nucleus, karyolysis and karyorrhexis, vacuolated cytoplasm, binucleated cells, apoptotic cells etc. Results: Cytological analyses confirmed that the mean of MN frequencies and other nuclear and cytoplasmatic abnormalities are much more present in the subjects with long time exposere than in other subjects. The abnormalities corelated with their age, sex, genetic constitution, adverse habits such as tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption. Various factors, including cell culture conditions (medium, incubation time) and population variables such as dietary habits may cause more or less nuclear and cytoplasmatic abnormalities. Conclusions: The present paper reviews the origin, fate and scoring criteria of MN that serves as a biomarker of exposure to genetic toxins, and for the risk of cancer. We recommend using nuclear and cytoplasmatic abnormalities in peripheral blood lymphocytes as a tools for evaluating genomic instability. This study suggests the needs for application of other cytogenetic techniques or trenings which allow easy detection of the rate of chromosome rearrangements and the origin of the chromosome instability.

Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item (Poster)
Subjects: Medical and Health Sciences > Basic medicine
Divisions: Faculty of Medical Science
Depositing User: Nevenka Velickova
Date Deposited: 18 Jul 2019 09:26
Last Modified: 18 Jul 2019 09:26
URI: http://eprints.ugd.edu.mk/id/eprint/22271

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