Characterization of autumn barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare L.) of different geographic origin

Markova Ruzdik, Natalija (2015) Characterization of autumn barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare L.) of different geographic origin. PhD thesis, Goce Delcev University, Stip.

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Abstract

This doctoral thesis presents the results obtained from applied research over biological, physiological, productive, qualitative-technological and chemical traits of winter two row varieties of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) of different geographical origin. The total number of 21 genotypes are used as research material, of which 5 genotypes are domestic (hit, izvor, egej, line 1 and line 2), 2 genotypes are from Croatia (zlatko and rex), 2 genotypes are from Serbia (NS 525 and NS 565) and 12 genotypes are of Bulgarian origin (obzor, perun, emon, lardeya, orfej, imeon, zagorec, asparuh, kuber, sajra, devinija and odisej). The field experiment are set on the trial fields of University’s enterprise, „UniServis Agro“ on both locations, Ovche Pole and Strumica, during 2102-2013 and 2013-2014 productive year. The trials were set in accordance to the randomized block system and the trial area of each genotype is 1 m2. The following biological and physiological traits are analyzed: phonological development stages during vegetation, resistance to drought, low temperature, lodging and economically most important barley diseases. As far as productive characteristics are concerned, the full yield components are determined. The ratio between the grain yield and the biological yield is used to calculate the harvest index. The quality of the grain in researched genotypes is determined through the following characteristics: protein content, uniformity of I and II class grains, water sensitivity, degree of soaking, 1000 grains weight and hectolitre weight. The content of macro and micro elements is determined by using mass spectrometry with inductively charged plasma (MS ICP). In order to determine genetic distance and similarity for tested genotypes, SSR molecular markers are used. The results of productive traits are statistically processed with statistical software (Stat Soft, 8.0). In order to check the general variation of the surveyed characteristics, principle component analysis and cluster analysis are applied. For determination of the genotype influence, the year, location and their interaction over the yield, variance analysis is applied (ANOVA) along with statistical SPSS package Statistics 19 (2010). On the other hand, for determination of the lowest significant difference between average values for grain yield and its components at tested genotypes, program JMP 5.0.1. a (2002) is used. The genetic distance and the dendogram from the performed molecular analysis is determined with R statistical package, R Development Core Team (2008). The obtained results have proven that the genotypes odisej, orfej, line 2 and izvor have good drought resistance, while genotypes orfej, sajra, devinija and odisej are most resistant to low temperature. The highest resistance of lodging is obtained for genotypes egej, zlatko, NS 525, devinija and odisej. Genotypes NS 525, perun, emon, asparuh, sajra and odisej are most resistant to grey leaf spot, while the most resistant to brown spot blotch disease are following genotypes: hit, izvor, egej, line 2, NS 565, emon, lardeya, orfej, zagorec, sajra, devinija and odisej. The genotypes have shown different average values for almost each analyzed yield components. Based on significance of the differences in average values they are divided into groups. Of all genotypes grown on both locations, genotype NS 525 has produced highest average yield (5 526 kg/ha), while genotype imeon has produced the lowest one (3 256 kg/ha). In the first experimental year the average grain yield in Strumica is by 15,87 % higher than the obtained yield in Ovche Pole. In the second production year this difference is reduced by half i.e. 8,10 % higher in Strumica as compared to Ovche Pole. By applying factorial analysis of variance it was determined that the factor year has the highest influence over the yield expression. Performing an analysis of correlation between the components of yield and grain yield in both locations, positive and negative correlation coefficients were obtained. Significant correlations for both locations were established on: fertility and number of sterille spikelets in main spike, grains weight per main spike and the number of grains per spike, grains weight per plant and the number of productive tillers per plant, plant weight and the total tillers number per plant, 1000 grains weight and grains weight per main spike, biological yield and the number of spikes per m2, biological yield and 1000 grains weight, harvest index and the number of spikes per m2, the yield and the number of spikes per m2, the yield and the harvest index. As far as qualitative-technological characteristics are concerned, all genotypes have higher protein content of 12%, except genotype imeon examined in Strumica location. Highest uniformity of I class grains has asparuh genotype examined in Ovche Pole location and genotype NS 525 grown in Strumica location. The highest average value for 1000 grains weight is obtained for genotype NS 565 grown in Ovche Pole and for NS 525 examined in Strumica location. Kuber genotype was recorded for highest average value of hectolitre weight in both locations. Generally, on all genotypes and on both locations low content on significant macro and micro elements was obtained. On all genotypes tested in Strumica, high average value was recorded on the content of macro and micro elements as compared with average values obtained for genotypes grown in Ovche Pole. Selected SSR markers have shown genetic difference among tested genotypes and they, in combination with other molecular markers can be used for barley genotyping. As highly productive genotypes the following ones were observed in Ovche Pole location: NS 525, NS 565, perun and asparuh and in Strumica location genotypes NS 525, kuber, odisej, perun and lardeya. According to the weather conditions in Ovche Pole, the following genotypes are most suitable for production: kuber, sajra, odisej, lardeya, devinija, zagorec and rex, as for Strumica location the best genotypes are: NS 565, sajra, zlatko and rex. Key words: genotype, yield, yield components, qualitative traits, molecular markers, correlation

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Subjects: Agricultural Sciences > Agricultural biotechnology
Divisions: Faculty of Agriculture
Depositing User: Sladzana Mitrovska
Date Deposited: 08 May 2015 11:17
Last Modified: 08 May 2015 11:17
URI: http://eprints.ugd.edu.mk/id/eprint/13135

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