Mechanism of action and characteristics of certain antiseptics and disinfectants in correlation with their activity on selected microorganisms

Gjorgjeska, Biljana and Karpicarov, Dino (2018) Mechanism of action and characteristics of certain antiseptics and disinfectants in correlation with their activity on selected microorganisms. In: Knowledge in Practice, XIX-th International Scientific Conference, 14-16 Dec 2018, Bansko, Bulgaria.

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Abstract

Antiseptics and disinfectants represent a large group of compounds such as: alcohols, aldehydes, acid and base compounds, anilides, biguanides, diamidines, halogen release agents, heavy metals and their compounds, peroxygens, phenols, bis–phenols, halophenols, quaternary ammonium compounds and volatile compounds for sterilization. Both antiseptics and disinfectants are labeled as biocides which are compounds that have the ability to destroy microorganisms or prevent their growth, development and reproduction. Usually, when referring to biocides that inhibit growth, other terms may be more specific, such as “–static” and when referring to biocides that kill the target microorganism the term “–cidal” is often used. These chemical compounds have different effects depending on the concentration in which they are used. The main difference between antiseptics and disinfectants is the place of application. As such, antiseptics remove microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, viruses, parasites that have varying degree of pathogenicity and virulence) from living tissues while disinfectants remove the same type of microorganisms from variety of objects and equipment, or to remove pathogens from the immediate environment. The action of antiseptics and disinfectants is due to mutual reaction with the cell surface of the microorganisms, followed by their penetration into the cells and the influence on a certain target area. As a result of that, antiseptics and disinfectants are an integral part of the practices for controlling infections and preventing the occurrence of intra–hospital infections. One of the biggest problems facing modern medicine is the occurrence of the intra–hospital (inpatient, nosocomial) infections. These infections can be defined as localized or generalized infections caused by microorganisms acquired during hospitalization. More specifically, an intra–hospital infection is one for which there is no evidence that the infection was present or incubating at the time of a hospital admission. In fact, these infections can result from inappropriate use of antiseptics and disinfectants. To be used in hospital conditions, antiseptics and disinfectants must meet several criteria: easy to use; non–volatile; not harmful to equipment, staff or patients; free from unpleasant smells and effective within a relatively short time. The goals of this study are to present the most common microorganisms that cause the occurrence of intra–hospital infections; to present the characteristics and mechanisms of action of the most frequently used antiseptics and disinfectants in hospital conditions; to give guidance as to which antiseptic or disinfectant would be most suitable for use against the microorganism which occurs in the function of the causative agent of the intra–hospital infection. The establishment of such an approach is crucial because it is necessary to know which antiseptic or disinfectant has the greatest activity against the microorganism which is the cause of the intra–hospital (nosocomial) infection. As a result of that, the incidence of intra–hospital infections will be minimized.

Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item (Lecture)
Subjects: Medical and Health Sciences > Basic medicine
Natural sciences > Chemical sciences
Medical and Health Sciences > Clinical medicine
Medical and Health Sciences > Health sciences
Divisions: Faculty of Medical Science
Depositing User: Biljana Gorgeska
Date Deposited: 01 Feb 2019 10:06
Last Modified: 07 May 2019 10:03
URI: http://eprints.ugd.edu.mk/id/eprint/21235

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