Oral health changes during pregnancy

Atanasova, Sandra and Naskova, Sanja and Toneva, Verica and Zlatanovska, Katerina (2018) Oral health changes during pregnancy. Knowledge – International Journal, 22 (5). ISSN 1857-923X, 2545-4439

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Abstract

Abstract: Pregnancy as one of the most important periods in a woman's life causes major changes in maternal anatomy, physiology, and metabolism. Certain changes in the oral cavity occur and it does not present a reason to avoid the necessary dental treatments. Increased blood flow through the body, increased acidity in the mouth, as well as changes in hormonal status, particularly the increase in estrogen and progesterone during pregnancy can result in certain changes in the oral cavity. These changes include pregnancy gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth erosion, mobility of the teeth, pregnancy tumors, xerostomia and dental caries. Research shows that the most common change in the mouth is gingivitis with prevalence from 65% to 70%. Gingivitis is actually an inflammation of the gums characterized by gingival bleeding and occurs as a result of the presence of dental plaque. If it remains untreated, it may lead to a more severe form of periodontal disease. Periodontitis occurs when the inflammation expands into other tissues of the periodontium, resulting in their destruction, and over time leads to loss of teeth. During pregnancy, the oral cavity is more often exposed to gastric acid as a result of frequent morning vomiting, resulting in erosion of the teeth. Pregnancy tumors in the oral cavity that do not differ from the pyogenic tumor occur most often after the first trimester as a result of increased progesterone in combination with bacteria and local irritant factors. They usually withdraw after the birth of the baby. Mobility of teeth during pregnancy is associated with the extent of periodontal disease as well as the change in the mineral composition of the lamina dura. Changes in the composition of saliva and xerostomia are pregnancy-specific conditions that require increased oral hygiene and fluoride use, which will reduce the risk of dental caries. Treatment of these changes sometimes requires radiographic imaging that is not contraindicated in pregnancy, as exposure to low levels of radioactivity is presentand and all safety measures are taken.In pregnancy, local anesthetics with epinephrine are used. When the use of antibiotics is indicated, all penicillins, erythromycin, and cephalosporins are considered safe during pregnancy. The use of tetracyclines, vancomycin and streptomycin is contraindicated. Acetaminophen is the safest analgesic during pregnancy.Because there is a potential for liver toxicity, patients should be advised of the maximum daily dose and how to take the medicine. Adequate education is needed of pregnant patients for oral hygiene, possible changes in the mouth and regular dental visits.Dental examinations before and during pregnancy are important for the dentist to find and treat dental problems in the mouth. He may recommend treatment during pregnancy or after giving birth to the baby. Keywords: pregnancy, gingivitis, erosions, oral hygiene, education.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: Medical and Health Sciences > Other medical sciences
Divisions: Faculty of Medical Science
Depositing User: Sanja Naskova
Date Deposited: 01 Nov 2018 11:14
Last Modified: 01 Nov 2018 11:14
URI: http://eprints.ugd.edu.mk/id/eprint/19974

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