Bacterial resistance in hospitalized patients

Darkovska-Serafimovska, Marija and Serafimovska, Tijana and Taleski, Vaso (2017) Bacterial resistance in hospitalized patients. Knowledge - International Journal, Scientific Papers. pp. 1701-1707. ISSN 2545-4439

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Abstract

Hospital associated infections contribute to 99,000 deaths each year in the United States and 25.000 in Europe. Bacterial resistance complicate the treatment and represents a major healthcare issue. Irrational use of antibiotics is known to be one of the main causes of increase in bacterial resistance. In April 2016, WHO expressed regret that health services in the world are not doing enough when it comes to the use of antibiotics, which leads to increasing resistance to them, sometimes results in death, even in cases where disease usually can be easy to treat. Seriousness of the situation regarding the development of bacterial resistance requires extensive research on this phenomenon, constantly monitoring the spread of resistance in bacteria and publishing the results. The European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network (EARS-Net) is the largest system for antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance in Europe, reporting only data from invasive isolates (blood and cerebrospinal fluid). EARS-Net data have important impact in raising awareness at the political level, among public health officials, in the scientific community, and among the public. Appointed representatives report routine clinical antimicrobial susceptibility data from local and clinical laboratories to ECDC from the Member States. CAESAR is a network of national AMR surveillance systems and includes all countries of the WHO European Region that are not part of the EARS-Net (including Republic of Macedonia). In a new report released by the US Center for Control and Prevention of Disease, report that the reason for a number of previously routinely curable diseases to become incurable is the lack of new antibiotics, together with excessive prescribing of existing ones. According to official data, bacterial resistance is lowest in countries where guidelines for prescribing and use of antibiotics are consistently implemented, such as the Scandinavian countries, the Netherlands, Germany and Great Britain. In this paper, as a source of data on the phenomena of bacterial resistance, have been used published scientific papers in relevant journals (PUBMED) in the last fifteen years. As a criterion for evaluating the study were used potential analyzes, diagnostic criteria, appropriate selection of patients with infections caused by bacteria and therapy. The results for the average use of antibiotics show the existence of seasonal variations in the prescribing of antibiotics, for example, the prescription in the winter period is about 15% higher than in the summer period. Although the bactericidal effect of penicillin is still relatively well preserved, their use in hospitals in many European countries is low. The results оf analysis showed that amikacin and a combination of ampicillin + sulbactam were the most used in children up to the age of two. The most common is use of antibiotics in treatment of respiratory infections, at the pulmonary departments. The most common cause of urinary tract infections is Eschericia coli. In the samples of the gastrointestinal tract, Klebsiella pneumoniae, E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are most often isolated. Studies conducted at neonatal departments showed increase of isolated coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. in blood samples. E. coli as the most common cause of urinary tract infections has shown resistance (about 30%) to ceftriaxone. High resistance and multiresistance according to the literature data shows coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. Enterococcus spp. takes a more prominent place among the causes of hospital infections. The percentage of resistance of these bacteria to gentamicin ranges from 48-66.7%.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: Medical and Health Sciences > Clinical medicine
Divisions: Faculty of Medical Science
Depositing User: Marija Darkovska-Serafimovska
Date Deposited: 18 Jan 2018 09:05
Last Modified: 18 Jan 2018 09:05
URI: http://eprints.ugd.edu.mk/id/eprint/18916

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