New brucella species and reservoirs – potential of global re-emerging zoonosis

Taleski, Vaso (2017) New brucella species and reservoirs – potential of global re-emerging zoonosis. In: XXX Strucni sastanak preventivne medicine Timocke krajine, 24-28 Apr 2017, Zajecar, Srbija.

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Introduction Brucellosis is one of the most common worldwide re-emerging zoonotic disease. Most of the developed countries has been eradicated Brucellosis, but the disease remains prevalent in regions of Africa, the Middle East, Asia, and Central and South America, as well as in the Mediterranean basin. The geographical distribution of brucellosis is constantly changing with new hosts and reservoirs. Aim To present new Brucella strains and reservoirs. Material and Methods Review and presentation of recent published data, reported and confirmed new Brucella strains and reservoirs. Discussion The genus Brucella comprises several important highly pathogenic species, genetically highly related to each other, which can be divided into the: 1.Classical, terrestrial strains of Brucellae (B. melitensis, B. abortus, B. suis, B. canis, B. ovis, B. neotomae), 2. Marine mammals Brucellae (B. ceti and B. pinnipedialis), and 3. “Atypical”, more recently identified species (B. microti, B. inopinata, B. papionis and B. vulpis). B. melitensis contributes to 98% of all human brucellosis cases. Marine mammals Brucella have never been documented in humans. Within the ‘atypical’ Brucellae, only B. inopinata and the non-classified Brucella strain BO2 were isolated from human infections, but their natural hosts are still unknown. B. microti is the only species known to persist in soil, which is environmental reservoir of particular interest. Most recently, amphibians (frogs) had been recognized as new hosts for Brucella spp. Some frog’s isolates were identified as “atypical” B. inopinata and others as new Brucella members. The worldwide distribution suggests that amphibians are not only occasionally infected, but may represent a new, yet undiscovered and ecologically significant natural host. Very probably, frog’s isolates have a reservoir in soil. In addition, these isolates may represent a link between free-living soil saprophytes and the intracellular pathogenic Brucella. Conclusions Control of Brucellosis became more complicated due novel reservoirs and hosts. New Brucella species as well as “atypical” Brucella strains have enhanced understanding of the evolution of the genus from a soil-associated motile bacterium to a host-adapted pathogen. Whilst there is no evidence to date that frog’s isolates represent a zoonotic threat, appropriate measures should be taken to avoid unnecessary contact with potentially infected amphibians until the zoonotic potential of this group is better understood. Key words: brucellosis, atypical, new brucella, reservoirs.

Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item (Keynote)
Subjects: Medical and Health Sciences > Basic medicine
Medical and Health Sciences > Clinical medicine
Medical and Health Sciences > Health sciences
Divisions: Faculty of Medical Science
Depositing User: Vaso Taleski
Date Deposited: 15 Aug 2017 12:30
Last Modified: 15 Aug 2017 12:30

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