Aflatoxins and ochratoxins, harmful mycotoxins for human and animal health

Taleski, Vaso and Bojkovska, Marija and Gjorgjeska, Biljana and Simjanovska, Liljana (2016) Aflatoxins and ochratoxins, harmful mycotoxins for human and animal health. International Journal Knowledge, 15.3. pp. 1041-1046. ISSN 1857-92

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Abstract

Aflatoxins and ochratoxins are toxic and carcinogen mycotoxins produced as secondary metabolites by several moulds species. Aflatoxins are producing by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus in dry conditions and high temperatures. Food and feed may be contaminated during harvest, transport, and storage and processing. Contaminated food, imported in human body may cause harmful effects including liver cancer. The aflatoxins consist of about 20 similar compounds but only four (B1, B2, G1 and G2) are naturally found in foods. Aflatoxin B1 is the most commonly found in food and also the most toxic. If lactating animals ingest aflatoxins by contaminated feed, toxic metabolites may be present in milk. Aflatoxin M1 and M2, are important contaminants in dairy products. Cereals, nuts, figs, tobacco and many other food products may be contaminated by aflatoxins. The EU sets limits for aflatoxin B1 and for total aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2) in nuts, dried fruits, cereals and spices range from 2-12 μg/kg for B1, from 4-15 μg/kg for total aflatoxins and 0.050 μg/kg for aflatoxin M1 in milk and milk products. Limits of 0.10 μg/kg for B1 and 0.025 μg/kg for M1 have been set for infant foods. US food safety regulations include a limit of 20 μg/kg for total aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2) in all foods and 0.5 μg/kg for M1 in milk. Higher limits apply in animal feeds. Ochratoxins are secondary metabolites produced by Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus niger and Penicilinum verrucosum. Ochratoxins includes: ochratoxin A (OTA), B, C, α and β. The most important and most toxic, found naturally in food, is ochratoxin A (OTA). The ochratoxin B, is rare and much less toxic, also may be found in food. Ochratoxins may be detect on various types of food and feed, in conditions of higher moisture and high temperatures, during harvest transport, storage and processing. Ochratoxins are toxic for kidneys and liver. Because of toxic harmful actions for human and animal health, food and feed protection aflatoxins and ochratoxins is very important. Separation of contaminated from non-contaminated food and feed is essential for prevention of human and animal health and high economy savings. Real situation with contamination of food and toxic effects of aflatoxins and ochratoxins on human and animal health are unknown. Key words: aflatoxin, Aspergillus, ochratoxin, secondary metabolites

Item Type: Article
Subjects: Medical and Health Sciences > Basic medicine
Medical and Health Sciences > Health sciences
Medical and Health Sciences > Other medical sciences
Divisions: Faculty of Medical Science
Depositing User: Vaso Taleski
Date Deposited: 27 Jan 2017 10:21
Last Modified: 27 Jan 2017 10:21
URI: http://eprints.ugd.edu.mk/id/eprint/17041

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